A brief history of plastics

When you think of plastic, what springs canada goose parka outlet to mind? Cheap toys from China? Packaging? Or maybe a plastic bag? Of course you would. But how about a woolly jumper? Or cornflakes? Or an antique oak wardrobe?

Canada Goose Jackets Believe it or not, from a chemist’s perspective all these things are made of the same class of materials: Polymers. And the distinction between which ones we happen to canada goose outlet real call « plastics » and which ones we canada goose outlet edmonton don’t canada goose outlet london uk is fairly arbitrary. Canada Goose Jackets

Canada Goose online « You take a simple organic molecule and you react it with itself again and again and again, » explains chemistry professor Andrea Sella of University College London. Canada Goose online

canada goose coats « A little bit like a bicycle chain, you attach one link, and you click on the next one and the next one and the next one, almost ad infinitum. » canada goose coats

canada goose clearance Polymers are canada goose outlet kokemuksia a very broad category. canada goose clearance

canada goose deals By the 1930s you’ve got canada goose outlet trillium parka black get Ginger Rogers dancing in a beautiful white laminate interiorDr Susan Mossman, The Science Museum canada goose deals

canada goose store As well as plastics, canada goose outlet official they also include the silicones based on silicon canada goose outlet seattle rather than carbon used in everything from breast implants to fire retardants. canada goose store

Canada Goose Outlet They even include DNA. Canada Goose Outlet

The polymers’ shape is what gives plastics their plasticity, allowing them to be moulded into any shape. The individual canada goose jacket outlet store strands « can simply slide past each other » says Sella. « Think of cold spaghetti. »

Humans have canada goose outlet store montreal been using naturally derived plastics for far longer than you may imagine.

For example, medieval craftsmen made lantern windows out of translucent slices of animal horn. Horn is made of keratin a mixed carbon nitrogen polymer the same stuff that skin and hair, including wool, is made of.

canada goose clearance sale But the history goes back further. canada goose clearance sale

canadian goose jacket A millennium and a half before canada goose outlet in new york Christ, the Olmecs in Mexico played with balls made of another natural polymer rubber. canadian goose jacket

It was not canada goose outlet store uk until the 18th Century that the first European, French explorer Charles Marie de La Condamine, stumbled upon the rubber tree in the Amazon basin.

Canada Goose sale And it was only in the 1840s that the American Charles Goodyear and the British Thomas Hancock took out patents on either side of the Atlantic canada goose jacket outlet uk for « vulcanised » rubber treated with sulphur to make https://www.canadagoosetomall.com canada goose outlet uk fake it more durable. Canada Goose sale

canada goose coats on sale Vulcanisation made possible the rubber tyre for the bicycle, and later the motor car (hence the Goodyear tyre company). Thomas Hancock, meanwhile, collaborated with Charles Mackintosh to make water resistant clothing. canada goose coats on sale

Canada Goose Parka But the story of plastics goes back earlier even than the Olmecs, in fact as long as man has been using wood. That’s because about half of your average piece of wood is cellulose a polymer that provides the tough walls of plant cells, and canada goose outlet winnipeg address wood its stiffness and durability. It is the long strands of cellulose that are separated by the pulping industry, and that give paper its strength. Canada Goose Parka

cheap Canada Goose It canada goose outlet michigan was also cellulose that provided the raw material for the next great breakthrough in modern plastics the canada goose jacket outlet toronto material « Parkesine », modestly named by the British inventor Alexander Parkes, who put it on display at the 1862 international exhibition in London. cheap Canada Goose

Many early examples of Parkesine products printers’ moulds, cutlery handles, buttons, combs can be found on display today at London’s Science Museum.

« Although he’s a fantastic inventor, he’s not a brilliant businessman, » explains curator Dr Susan Mossman. « So he goes bankrupt. »

buy canada goose jacket It was left to two Americans, the Hyatt brothers, to make a mint from the material much to Parkes’ chagrin. They canada goose outlet added camphor, improving the plastic’s malleability, and renamed it celluloid in 1870, thus providing what would canada goose outlet in montreal become the raw material for the film industry. buy canada goose jacket

canada goose black friday sale Cars and films canada goose outlet mall are not the only technologies whose canada goose outlet uk birth was facilitated by these early plastics. canada goose black friday sale

Developed in 1907 1909 by Belgian chemist Dr Leo Baekeland

One of the first plastics made from synthetic components

Used for its electrically non conductive and heat resistant properties in radio and telephone casings and electrical insulators

Also used in products from kitchenware and jewellery, to pipe stems and children’s toys

canada goose Designated an ACS National Historical Chemical Landmark in 1993 recognition of its significance as the world’s first synthetic plastic canada goose.